Old and New Testament Parallels, Symbols, and Ponderings Series: Moses as a Type of Christ (Part 1)

Moses is one of the best known types of Christ found in the Old Testament typology. His life, teaching, preaching and predictions as a major Old Testament prophet directly parallel Jesus’s life, death and resurrection. Below, you will findegypt “Part 1” on Moses’s early life and the corresponding direct parallels to the life and ministry of Jesus. “Part 2”, which will be posted in the coming weeks, will contain the second half of Moses’s life.

Born under Foreign Rulers:

  • Moses was born in Egypt many years after Joseph, who famously saved the region from famine, died. The current reigning pharaoh knew nothing of the Hebrew-Egyptian partnership and worried about the growing Jewish population and their influence within his land. Out of fear of being overthrown, he made the Hebrews his slaves and forced them into hard labor and oppression (Exodus 2:3-10).
  • Jesus was born during the rule of the infamously power hungry, murderous and paranoid Herod the Great, the king of Judea (a client kingdom of Rome). Aside from Herod, the Romans were generally considered much less oppressive than the pharaoh of Moses’s day; however, the Jews’ activities were carefully monitored by the Roman government to ensure the peace was kept and no activity would lead to an overthrow (Franz, Gordon; Matthew 2).

Child of the Poor; Born to be a King:

  • Moses’s mother was a Jewish slave; but he became a prince of Egypt. As a prince, he could have forsaken his heritage as a Hebrew and experienced the lavish riches and lifestyle of the royal Egyptian family. However, he was nursed by his biological mother and raised in his early years with his kinsmen. It was a bond he never forgot, eventually causing him to reject the Egyptians as his adopted family and resent the unfair treatment of his people (Exodus 2:11).
  • Jesus was born in a manger, but He is the Son of God and often referred to as the “King of kings and Lord of lords”, which refers to a ruler who holds complete power to exercise dominion over His realm (GotQuestions). When He walked among His disciples, His intention was never to rule over men as a “king” in the traditional sense. For His followers who were vying for control, power and a special seat of honor, this caused a great amount of confusion (Matthew 20:20-28; Revelation 17:14, 19:16).

Lives Threatened at Birth:

  • Pharaoh feared the Hebrews in Egypt and commanded the midwives of Jewish mothers to kill all newborn boys; however, the little boys were spared because the midwives feared God and protected them. As a result, God blessed the midwives for their faithfulness (Exodus 1:15-22).
  • After Moses was born, his mother hid him to ensure his safety. When she no longer could keep him hidden, she placed Moses in a basket along the Nile to be noticed by Pharaoh’s daughter who had gone to the river to bathe. The Egyptian princess took pity on the baby in the basket, and Moses’ life was spared from death (Exodus 1:15-22).
  • Jesus’ life was also threatened at birth. King Herod, who ruled over the land where Jesus was born, was paranoid and power hungry. In fact, the fear of losing his thrown consumed him to such a horrifying degree that he murdered his own family (Frankz, Gordon; Losch, Richard).
  • After Herod heard the prophecy stating a king more powerful than he would be born in his land during his lifetime, he instructed his soldiers to murder all the little boys born within his kingdom to ensure no one could take his crown (Matthew 2:3-18).


  • Moses was adopted into Pharaoh’s family; Jesus was adopted into Joseph’s family. Neither man was raised by his biological father (Exodus 2:10; Matthew 1:19-21).

Childhood in Egypt:

  • Moses was raised as a prince of Egypt (Exodus 2:10).
  • Mary and Joseph fled with Jesus to Egypt to hide him from King Herod (Matthew 2:13).

An Early Calling; Realized Years Later:

  • Moses felt a deep calling to deliver his people, the Hebrews, from slavery. After Moses killed an Egyptian man for abusing a Hebrew slave, he fled to Midian and was unable to realize the calling on his life until 40 years later (Exodus 2:11-15, 3:7-10; Acts 7:25-30).
  • At the age of twelve, Jesus spoke with the religious teachers in the Temple. He began His ministry when He was about 30 years old; and He completed His calling through His death, burial and resurrection at the age of 33 (Matthew 4:12-25; Luke 3:23).

Wandered through the Wilderness before Fulfilling Calling:

  • The wilderness is used in the Bible as time of change, transition and revelation. Moses wandered through the wilderness when he fled Egypt (Exodus 3). In the wilderness, he married Zipporah, had children, and encountered God in the burning bush, changing the course of his life forever.
  • Jesus was led into the wilderness by the Holy Spirit. In the wilderness, He fasted and was tempted by the devil. The experience in the wilderness was a necessary precursor to Jesus’s ministry (Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1).

Kept the Company of Gentiles:

Performed Miracles:

Both were Tempted:

  • Moses could have enjoyed the life of a prince, but his heart was with his kinsmen, the Hebrews (Hebrews 11:24-27).
  • After 40 days of fasting, Jesus was tempted in wilderness to turn stones to bread, test God the Father and take the world as His kingdom. However, Jesus never sinned (Matthew 4:1-9).

Became Shepherds:

  • Moses watched over his father-in-law’s sheep (Exodus 3:1).
  • Jesus is the “Good Shepherd” (John 10:6-16).

Moved by Compassion for Israel:

  • Moses saw the unfair treatment of his family and friends in Egypt, and felt called to rescue them (Acts 7:23-24).
  • Jesus chose to die for us. Even as His own people called for His crucifixion, He asked the Father to forgive them (Luke 23:34).

Other Interesting Discoveries while Researching this Topic:

  • When the mummy of the Egyptian pharaoh named Thutmoses II was discovered, scientists were surprised to find cyst-like scars covering his body, indicating he may have experienced the infamous plague of boils (www.bible.ca).


Old and New Testament Parallels, Symbols, and Ponderings Series: Joseph as a Type of Christ

The story of Joseph has always been one of my favorites, butegypt I had no idea before I began researching that his life can be directly paralleled with Jesus. In fact, I found over 60 parallels on the web. For the sake of brevity, I’ve included some of the highlights, but you can review the whole list in the “Sources and Resources” links at the bottom of this blog post if you are looking for more information. Here are the highlights…

Beloved Son:

  • Jesus and Joseph are both referred to as the first-born and “beloved son” (or a closely related synonym from the root Hebrew words “ahebh” and “agapao”) (Genesis 37:3, Matthew 3:17). Joseph was the first-born for his wife Rachel. Jesus was the first-born of Mary.
  • According to Bible Hub, “beloved” is used in the Old Testament 42 times. The word is used in both testaments and are derived from primarily two main Hebrew words and their derivatives. “Ahebh” is primarily found in the Old Testament and means “to breathe” or “long for.” “Agapao” can be found in the New Testament and means “to prefer.”


  • Joseph frequently tended to his father’s sheep when he was a teenager.
  • Jesus is called the “Good Shepherd” (Genesis 37:2; John 10:11).
  • A shepherd cares for the sheep and fiercely protects them from dangers like wolves and other animals threatening the flock(s).

Miraculous Birth:

  • Rachel was unable to have children and Jacob was an old man. However, God heard Rachel’s prayers for children and intervened (Genesis 30:22-24; 37:3).
  • Jesus was born to Mary who was a virgin (Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:31-33).

Foretold Sovereignty and the Promise:

Hated and Rejected by His Own:

  • Jacob loved Joseph more than his other sons because he and Benjamin were the only sons born to his favorite wife Rachel. Joseph’s half brothers knew he was the favorite, became jealous and consipered to murder him (Genesis 37:4,18).
  • Jesus’s brothers were jealous and did not believe He was the Son of God (John 7:3-5).
  • Jesus was despised by the religious leaders and by His own people, eventually leading to His death on the cross (Mark 15:10; Luke 23:21 and John 15:25).

Stripped His Clothing:

  • Joseph’s brothers stripped him of the coat of many colors (Genesis 37:23).
  • The roman soldiers removed Jesus’s clothes prior to his crucifiction (Matthew 27:28).


  • Instead of murdering Joseph, the eldest brother Reuben convinced the brothers to throw him into a cistern (Genesis 37:21-24).
  • After Jesus died on the cross, He remained rejected and alone in the ground for three days (Matthew 12:40).

Sold for the Price of a Slave:

  • Joseph’s brother Judah suggested selling Joseph into slavery. They sold him to the Ishmaelites as a slave for twenty pieces of silver (Genesis 37:28). Interestingly, Judah’s name translates to “Judas” in Hellenized Greek.
  • Judas betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver (the price of a slave) (Matthew 26:15; 27:24).

Raised to Life:

The Servant:

  • Joseph became a servant to an Egyptian official named Potiphar (Genesis 39:1-2).
  • Jesus “gave up His divine privileges; he took the humble position of a slave and was born a human being (Philippians 2:7a).”

Resisted Temptation:

  • Potiphar’s wife tempted Joseph to sleep with her, but he never acted upon the temptation (Genesis 39:7-9).
  • Satan tempted Jesus to do wrong, but He did not sin (Matthew 4:1-11).

Falsely Accused:

  • Joseph was falsely accused of trying to take advantage of Potiphar’s wife (Genesis 39:7-9).
  • Two false witnesses accused Jesus of wrongdoing, but he remained silent (Matthew 26:60, 62-63).

Became a Prisoner Among Sinners:

  • Joseph was thrown into prison with other prisoners after being falsely accused of a crime he didn’t commit (Genesis 39:20).
  • Jesus was crucified beside two thieves for a crime He didn’t commit (Luke 23:33).

Promise to the Condemned:

  • Two other men, who were imprisoned with Joseph, were condemned to die. Joseph promised one of the prisoners his life would be restored to his position (Genesis 40:13).
  • Jesus promised one of the thieves who was crucified with Him that he would go to paradise (Luke 23:43).

Honor and Glory:

  • Joseph eventually became Pharaoh’s highest advisor. This position of authority gave him the second highest level of power in Egypt. Every knee bowed to Joseph (Genesis 41:41-45).
  • God exalted Jesus and gave Him a name above every name. Every knee will bow to Jesus (Philippians 2:9-10).

The Provider:

  • Joseph was responsible for ensuring all Egyptians and people in the surrounding lands had food during several years of famine. If Joseph decided not to allow someone to buy grain, they would likely starve to death. During that time period, he was the source of life (Genesis 41:57).
  • Jesus is the “bread of life.” Those who go to Him will never thirst or hunger (John 6:35).

They didn’t Recognize Him:

  • Joseph’s brothers didn’t recognize him when they approached him for grain. By this point in the Genesis account, many years had passed and Joseph was likely dressed in Egyptian style clothing and makeup that signified his level of authority, making it difficult for his brothers to identify him (Genesis 42:8).
  • Jesus was not recognized as the Messiah by His own nation (John 1:10).
  • When Jesus resurrected from the grave, He went to His disciples; but they were afraid and didn’t recognize Him (Luke 24:13-35).

Reconciliation and Family Restored:

  • When Joseph revealed his identity to his brothers, they feared he would have them killed or seek revenge for the terrible wrong they had done to him. However, Joseph wept when he saw his brothers, and he chose to show them mercy even though the didn’t deserve it (Genesis 45).
  • Jesus chose mercy over judgment and restored us when He died on the cross and resurrected from the grave. Through His wonderful gift of redemption, He restored the nation of Israel and adopted the gentiles although none of us deserve it.

Sources and Resources:

Old and New Testament Parallels, Symbols, and Ponderings Series Part 5 – Jacob as a Type of Christ

Why do I write about the parallels between Jesus and Old Testament characters? I believe it isjacob important to understand the strong links between the Old and New Testaments. Repeated themes of Jesus’s attitudes, life, death and resurrection are deeply embedded on every page of the Old Testament. By discovering these links, it will increase your faith and encourage you to believe the Bible is truly God’s Word. As you follow the series Old and New Testament Parallels, Symbols and Ponderings, I encourage you to consider the age of these ancient texts, the span of years between the Old and New Testament writers, the number of repeated prophecies of the coming Messiah and the accurate foretelling of the life of Christ in the Old Testament.

As I researched this topic across the web, I began to realize there are many parallels between Jacob and Jesus, and it would be an extremely long blog entry if I attempted to cover all of them. Below are some of the most interesting parallels from the story of Jacob:

Parallel 1: The Highly Favored and Beloved Son:

  • If you know the story of Jacob, you may be wondering how he could be called a “type” of Christ. After all, he stole his brother’s birthright by tricking his father. He was stubborn and prone to strife. However, God loved and poured His favor upon Jacob before He was born (Psalms 135:4; Isaiah 41:8; Romans 9:10-13). Throughout the Old Testament, ancient Israel’s relationship with God consisted of love, struggle, waywardness and reconciliation. God’s people weren’t perfect, yet He called them His “chosen” people anyway. I love this parallel because it gives me, who is very imperfect at times, hope. How great is the grace and mercy of God on us!
  • God favored and loved His Son Jesus before the world was formed (John 17:24).

Parallel 2: Stranger in a Strange Land

  • After Jacob stole his Esau’s birthright, his brother wanted to kill him. As a result, Jacob fled his home to live among strangers in a far away land, called Paddan-aram, for twenty years. Before returning to his homeland, he built his family, his wealth and riches (Genesis 28:2-4).
  • Christ left His heavenly Father’s side to become a man upon this earth. As a result, he lived among a world that didn’t understand. His own people wanted to kill Him (Philippians 2:7). Jesus came from heavenly places to share His wealth and glory of the Kingdom with us.

Symbolism: Jacob’s Ladder

  • Jacob has a dream in which he saw many angels going up and down a ladder that stretched between the heavens and the earth. Theologians believe the ladder represents Jesus who bridges the gap between heaven and this world through his death and resurrection for our sins. Revelation states the ladder will be complete when Jesus returns to His Bride (the Church) (John 1:51; Revelation 21 and 22).

Parallel 3: The Bride

  • Jacob worked for many years for his uncle to make Rachel his bride (Genesis 29:18).
  • Christ is the bridegroom of the Church. He came to this earth to die for the love of His bride, the Church. God and His angels are constantly working on our behalf until Christ returns (John 5:17).

Parallel 4: The Elder and The Younger Sisters

  • Jacob married two wives. Leah was the elder sister and Rachel, the younger. Jacob’s family line continued through both wives and were united together in marriage. Their families eventual journeyed to Canaan, the promised land.
  • Christ (represents Jacob) is the link between the Old Testament (Leah: Israel/Hebrew people) and the New Testament (Rachel: Jews united with gentiles/also known as the “Bride of Christ”). Jesus was a descendent of Leah because He came from the Tribe of Judah. The gentiles, through Christ, are adopted into the family of God’s chosen people. As God’s children, we are on a journey to the heavenly Canaan (Ephesians 2:14).

Parallel 5: Israel Prevails

  • God gave Jacob the name “Israel” after they wrestled outside of Jacob’s camp. The Lord gave him this name after saying he “wrestled with God and man, and prevailed” (Genesis 32:24-28).
  • During the Second Coming, Jesus will return to earth to build the New Jerusalem to signify Israel ultimately prevailing upon the earth (Revelation 21:2).

Parallel 6: The Patriarchs

  • Jacob became the father of the 12 tribes (descendants from his 12 children) of the Hebrew people.
  • In contrast, Christ’s disciples became the spiritual fathers.

Parallel 7: The House of Levi and Priesthood

  • The Tribe of Levi (a tribe of priests) came from Jacob’s family line. The Levites were a class of priests, including high priests. Those who were not priests carried out other religious or political responsibilities. The High Priest was responsible for offering a sacrifice to atone for the sin of the Hebrew people (Leviticus 16).
  • Jesus was the High Priest. He offered himself as a sacrifice to permanently atone for the sins of humanity (Hebrews 10:21-22; Revelation 1:6).

Resources and Other Interesting Sites

Below is a list of sites I came across during my research. If you are interested in discovering more parallels to Jesus (there are many), here are great sites to help you start: